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    Future Propulsion Systems and Energy Sources in Sustainable Aviation

    Saeed Farokhi|2020.01.21

    Preface

    Abbreviations and Acronyms

    Chapter 1 - Aircraft Engines – A Review

    1.1 Aero-Thermodynamics of Working Fluid

    1.1.1 Isentropic Process and Isentropic Flow

    1.1.2 Conservation of Mass

    1.1.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum

    1.1.4 Conservation of Angular Momentum

    1.1.5 Conservation of Energy

    1.1.6 Speed of Sound and Mach Number

    1.1.7 Stagnation State

    1.2 Thrust and Specific Fuel Consumption

    1.2.1 Takeoff Thrust

    1.2.2 Installed Thrust- Some Bookkeeping Issues on Thrust and Drag

    1.2.3 Airbreathing Engine Performance Parameters

    1.2.3.1 Specific Thrust

    1.2.3.2 Specific Fuel Consumption and Specific Impulse

    1.3 Thermal and Propulsive Efficiency

    1.3.1 Thermal Efficiency

    1.3.2 Propulsive Efficiency

    1.3.3 Engine Overall Efficiency & Its Impact on Aircraft Range and Endurance

    1.4 Gas Generator

    1.5 Engine Components

    1.5.1 The Inlet

    1.5.2 The Nozzle

    1.5.3 The Compressor

    1.5.4 The Combustor

    1.5.5 The Turbine

    1.6 Performance Evaluation of Turbojet Engine

    1.7 Turbojet Engine with Afterburner

    1.7.1 Introduction

    1.7.2 Analysis

    1.8 Turbofan

    1.8.1 Introduction

    1.8.2 Analysis of Separate-Flow Turbofan Engine

    1.8.3 Thermal Efficiency of a Turbofan Engine

    1.8.4 Propulsive Efficiency of a Turbofan Engine

    1.8.5 Analysis of a Mixed-Exhaust Turbofan Engine with Afterburner

    1.8.5.1 Mixer

    1.8.5.2 Cycle Analysis

    1.9 Turboprop

    1.9.1 Introduction

    1.9.2 Turboprop Cycle Analysis

    1.10.1.1 Inlet Analysis

    1.10.1.2 Scramjet Combustor

    1.10.1.3 Scramjet Nozzle

    1.11 Rocket-Based Airbreathing Propulsion

    1.12 Summary

    References

    Chapter 2 - Aircraft Aerodynamics – A Review

    Introduction

    2.1 Similarity Parameters in Compressible Flow: Flight vs. Wind Tunnel

    2.2 Physical Boundary Conditions at a Wall

    2.3 Profile and Parasite Drag

    2.3.1 Boundary Layer

    2.3.2 Profile Drag of an Airfoil

    2.4 Drag –Due-To Lift

    2.4.1 Classical Theory

    2.4.2 Optimal Spanloading: The Case of Bell Spanload

    2.5 Waves in Supersonic Flow

    2.5.1 Speed of Sound

    2.5.2 Normal Shock Wave

    2.5.3 Oblique Shock Waves

    2.5.4 Expansion Waves

    2.6 Compressibility Effects & Critical Mach number

    2.7 Drag Divergence Phenomenon and Supercritical Airfoil

    2.8 Wing Sweep

    2.9 Delta Wing Aerodynamics

    2.9.1 Vortex Breakdown

    2.10 Area-Rule in Transonic Aerodynamics

    2.11 Optimum Shape for Slender Body of Revolution of Length in Supersonic Flow

    2.11.1 Sears-Haack Body

    2.11.2 Von Karman Ogive

    2.12 High-Lift Devices: Multi-Element Airfoils

    2.13 Powered Lift

    2.14 Laminar Flow Control

    2.15 Aerodynamic Figures of Merit

    2.16 Advanced Aircraft Concepts for Reduced Drag and Noise

    2.17 Summary

    References

    Chapter 3 - Understanding Aviation Impact on Environment

    Introduction

    3.1 Combustion Emissions

    3.1.1 Greenhouse Gases, CO2 and H2O

    3.1.2 Carbon Monoxide, CO and Unburned Hydrocarbons, UHC

    3.1.3 Oxides of Nitrogen, NOx

    3.1.4 Impact of NO on Ozone in Lower and Upper Atmosphere

    3.1.5 Impact of NOx Emissions on Surface Air Quality

    3.1.6 Soot/Smoke and Particulate Matter

    3.1.7 Contrail, Cirrus Clouds & Impact on Climate

    3.2 Engine Emission Standards

    3.3 Low-Emission Combustors

    3.4 Aviation Fuels

    3.5 Interim Summary on Combustion Emission Impact on Environment

    3.6 Aviation Impact on Carbon Dioxide Emission: Quantified

    3.7 Noise

    3.7.1 Introduction

    3.7.2 Sources of Noise near Airports

    3.7.3 Engine Noise

    3.7.4 Subsonic Jet Noise

    3.7.5 Supersonic Jet Noise

    3.8 Engine Noise Directivity Pattern

    3.9 Noise Reduction at Source

    3.9.1 Fan Noise Reduction

    3.9.2 Subsonic Jet Noise Mitigation

    3.9.2.1 Chevron Nozzle

    3.9.2.2 Acoustic Liner in Exhaust Core

    3.9.3 Supersonic Jet Noise Reduction

    3.10 Sonic Boom

    3.11 Aircraft Noise Certification

    3.12 NASA’s Vision: Quiet Green Transport Technology

    3.13 FAA’s Vision: NextGen Technology

    3.14 The European Vision for Sustainable Aviation

    3.15 Summary

    References

    Chapter 4 - Future Fuels & Energy Sources in Sustainable Aviation

    Introduction

    4.1 Alternative Jet Fuels

    4.1.1 Choice of Feedstock

    4.1.2 Conversion Pathways to Jet Fuel

    4.1.3 Alternative Jet Fuel Evaluation and Certification/Qualification

    4.1.4 Impact of Biofuels on Emissions

    4.1.5 Advanced Biofuel Production

    4.1.6 Commercial Flights on Sustainable Aviation Fuel

    4.1.7 Conversion of Bio-Crops to Electricity

    4.2 Liquefied Natural Gas, LNG

    4.2.1 Composition of Natural Gas and LNG

    4.3 Hydrogen

    4.3.1 Production Pathways f Gaseous Hydrogen

    4.3.2 Hydrogen Delivery and Storage

    4.4 Battery Systems

    4.4.1 Battery Energy Density

    4.4.2 Open-Cycle Battery Systems

    4.4.3 Charging Batteries in Flight

    4.4.4 All-Electric Aircraft: Voltair Concept Platform

    4.5 Fuel Cell

    4.6 Fuels for Compact Fusion Reactor 

    4.7 Summary

    References

    Chapter 5 - Promising Technologies In Propulsion and Power

    Introduction

    5.1 Gas Turbine Engine

    5.1.1 Brayton Cycle: Simple Gas Turbine Engine

    5.1.2 Turbofan Engine

    5.2 Distributed Combustion Concepts in Advanced Gas Turbine Engine Core

    5.3 Multi-Fuel (Cryogenic-Kerosene), Hybrid Propulsion Concept

    5.4 Intercooled and Recuperated Turbofan Engines

    5.5 Active Core Concepts

    5.6 Topping Cycle: Wave Rotor Combustion

    5.7 Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE)

    5.7.1 Humphrey Cycle vs. Brayton: Thermodynamics

    5.7.2 Idealized Laboratory PDE: Thrust Tube

    5.7.3 Pulse Detonation Ramjet

    5.7.4 Turbofan Engine with PDE

    5.7.5 Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE)

    5.7.6 Vehicle-Level Performance Evaluation of PDE

    5.8 Boundary Layer Ingestion (BLI) & Distributed Propulsion (DP) Concept

    5.8.1 Aircraft Drag Reduction through BLI

    5.8.2 Aircraft Noise Reduction: Advanced Concepts

    5.8.3 Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) of a Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) Aircraft with BLI

    5.9 Distributed Propulsion Concept in Early Aviation

    5.10 Distributed Propulsion in Modern Aviation

    5.10.1 Optimal Number of Propulsors in Distributed Propulsion

    5.10.2 Optimal Propulsor Types in Distributed Propulsion

    5.11 Interim Summary on Electric Propulsion (EP)

    5.12 Synergetic Air Breathing Rocket Engine; SABRE

    5.13 Compact Fusion Reactor: The Path to Clean, Unlimited Energy

    5.14 Aircraft Configurations Using Advanced Propulsion Systems

    5.15 Summary

    References

    Chapter 6 - Pathways to Sustainable Aviation

    Introduction

    6.1 Pathways to Certification

    6.2 Energy Pathways in Sustainable Aviation

    6.3 Future of GT Engines

    6.4 Summary

    References

    Index

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